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Department of Arts and Sciences 



FOOD PREPAREDNESS BULLETIN No. 2 

FOOD VALUES 



OCTOBER. 1917 



BUFFALO 



Published January, April, July and October of Each Year 



VOL. V, No. 4 



ENTERED AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER. MAY 2. 1816. AT THE POST OFFICE 
AT BUFFALO. NEW YORK. UNDER THE ACT OF AUGUST 24. 1812 






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Food Values 

In the narrower sense of the term food value refers to heat — or 
energy-equivalent of proteins, carbohydrates or fats or mixtures of 
these in food materials. In the following pages a much broader meaning 
is given to this term. The amount of heat, measured in calories, that 
may be obtained by burning a food is only a part of the story of foods. 
It is an erroneous but still quite prevalent practice to discuss and com- 
pare foods on a basis of chemical composition from which calories are 
calculated. While the composition of a food is perhaps its most im- 
portant feature, there are many other properties that must be carefully 
considered before we can estimate the true and complete value of a food. 

To some people the value of a food is closely related to its flavor 
only; food is good and valuable if it tastes good. Others judge food on 
a dollar and cents basis; to them expensive food is synonymous with 
good food. Still others do not connect "value" in any sense of the word 
with foods; sometimes they eat and think, but most of the time they 
simply eat. 

The word values is used in the plural, so that in the following dis- 
cussion there may be included the different factors which make a food 
valuable and desirable. 

Without the proper flavor a food would be little better than a 
medicine. Flavor makes food appetizing, and palatability is one of its 
first requisites. The difference in price as well as digestibility is often 
due to flavor. Choice cuts of meats, certain kinds of fish 
Flavor or fowl, wines, cheese, all contain some substance or sub- 

stances which are the "key to the whole food problem" — 
so-called by H. T. Finck in hife interesting and readable book on "Food 
and Flavor." Common observation as well as research experiments 
prove that, everything else being equal, a food which has a desirable 
flavor is more readily digested than one which is not palatable. 

Closely related to the flavor of a food is its odor. In fact, many 
people believe that what is usually considered to be the flavor tasted is 
in realty the odor smelled. Much attention is being given to cultivation, 
production, and preparation of foods so as to produce the most desirable 
flavors. The flavor of meats is improved by proper feeding of the 



animals; cheese is ripened by the addition of bacteria producing certain 
flavors; unfertiHzed hens' eggs have a flavor superior to those fertihzed. 
The appearance of an appetizing food adds greatly to its value. 
It stimulates the secretion of digestive fluids. One is inclined to believe 
that foods are often prepared to be photographed rather than eaten, 
and flavor as well as other values seem to be sacrificed for appearance. 
The value of a food depends in a large measure upon its 
Appear- natural appearance, or its appearance after it leaves the 
ance kitchen. Proper cooking, of course, does more than change 

the appearance of a food — it creates a food value, because 
it changes the composition, flavor and digestibility. Cooking also de- 
stroys germs and other organisms frequently present in uncooked foods. 
The appearance of a food, such as oleomargarine, may also be improved 
by coloring; by bleaching, as is done with flour; dyeing, as in the case of 
candies, mustard, maraschino cherries, and sometimes peas and ketchup 
and many others. These "improvements" in appearance often seriously 
affect the other properties and are really adulterations. 

Certainly an important factor in making a food valuable is its 
digestibility. This term is given two meanings: first, the ease or readi- 
ness with which a food is digested, i. e., time required: second, the per- 
centage of digestibility. Some foods are quickly and more 
Digesti- or less easily digested, while others leave an indigestible 

bility residue. The value of a food to any individual therefore 

depends upon its digestibility and the condition of the 
individual's digestive tract. Some people can digest very few foods, 
while others, especially growing children, have digestions that rival those 
attributed to goats and ostriches. 

Much that is said and written about the medicinal value of foods, 
especially of vegetables, is sheer nonsense, and most of the remainder 
is tradition. Chemists have not been able to isolate 
Medicinal medicinal substances from vegetables or other foods. 
Value For that matter it would probably involve us in diflficulties 

if we attempted to differentiate between medicines and 
foods that have a therapeutic value. 

To read about a medicine-food combination, a sort of two-in-one, 
is interesting if one is not particular about facts. Tradition has it that 
celery is loaded with medicine that will heal diseased nerves, and fish 
is good for brains; spinach is good for the blood, because it contains iron 



and iron makes blood; lettuce is supposed to make one sleep. Some 
people eat watercress to remove pimples; carrots to prevent dyspepsia; 
dandelions for the liver; cucumbers to cool the blood and onions for 
everything not included in the above. So far as we know, vegetables 
do not possess specific medicinal properties. However, certain foods, 
especially vegetables, are an important and necessary part of a well 
balanced diet. They contain vitamins and other growth essentials; 
they are usually rich in desirable mineral matter. They contain con- 
siderable water in a highly purified form which is valuable for digestive 
processes; and finally, they contain indigestible matter, such as cellulose 
or woody materials, called "crude fiber" or "roughage," which stimulates 
peristalsis and regulates bowel action. 

That foods should be pure is almost axiomatic. Any suspicion or 
knowledge that our food is not pure immediately suggests adulteration. 
A food might be called adulterated when it is sold or eaten for something 
other than as it is labeled, but many foods are properly 
Purity labeled and yet are most dangerously adulterated, or 

rather contaminated. Anyone who has ever given a thought 
to the subject of food adulteration in general, and contamination through 
unsanitary handling in particular, must be convinced that there is still 
much need for improvement in food sanitation. A few examples will 
be sufficient. Think of the possibilities of unwrapped bread becoming 
contaminated; there must be hundreds of persons engaged in handling 
foods who have infectious diseases; there are still many quick-lunch 
places where money and food are actually handled by the same person. 
Save only the medicinal value of foods, this topic, more than any 
other, tempts amateur food experts to rush into print. Many absurd 
statements are made about ptomain poisoning. When no other ex- 
planation is at hand, almost any kind of digestive dis- 
Food turbance is blamed on ptomains. In the popular mind, 

Poisoning food in tin cans is almost always under suspicion; but tin 
and ptomain have only the alliteration in common. Under 
food ■poisoning there should be included bacterial contamination, chemical 
decomposition, accidental addition of metallic or other poisons, deliberate 
use of poisonous preservatives, eating of substances supposed to be, or 
mistaken for, foods — such as toadstools. 

We go to speciaHsts for information on every other subject except 
the one that most vitally concerns us — foods. Apparently everybody 



who is willing to write or talk about foods becomes a specialist; many 

people believe anything they hear or read about foods and 
Misinfor- presently become food experts themselves. Almost with- 
mation out exception what is said about foods in advertisements 

of food experts, food speciahsts, patent medicines and the 
like, is worse than useless and should be prohibited by law. Occasionally 
— but unfortunately not often enough — a food faker is barred from the 
use of the United States mails. In pleasing contrast are the researches 
and writings of the real experts in food science. Their number is too 
large for enumeration here, but mention should be made of a most 
important series of articles on "What We Eat and What Happens to It" 
by Professor Philip B. Hawk in the Ladies^ Home Journal. Much of 
what Professor Hawk writes is based upon recent researches and experi- 
ments by himself and co-workers. The following also are excellent: 
Dr. H. W. Wiley: "Foods and Their Adulteration," "Our Daily Bread," 
articles in Good Housekeeping; Dr. Woods Hutchinson: "We and our 
Children," numerous other books and magazine articles; Alexander 
Bryce, "Modern Theories of Diet;" Fisher and Fiske, "How to Live;" 
E. Purinton, "Efficient Living;" Dr. Percy Stiles, "An Adequate Diet;" 
Dr. Lafayette B. Mendel, "Changes in the Food Supply and their Rela- 
tion to Nutrition;" Bulletins: Cornell Reading. Course for Farm Home, 
Ithaca, N. Y. ; United States Government Bulletins, Dept. of Agriculture, 
Washington, D. C. 

The most important progress in food science during recent years 
is due to the discovery of certain substances, as yet unidentified, and 

which are necessary for the maintenance of growth. The 
Growth name growth essentials seems most appropriate. Other 

Essentials terms used are growth determinants, food accessories, 

accessory factors, growth regulators. They occur in many 

foods, not in all, and a number of classes of growth essentials are known. 

Vitamins are unidentified substances present usually in very small 

amounts, found principally in fresh fruits and vegetables, grains, eggs, 

milk, meats and brewers' yeast and yeast extracts. The continued use 

of a diet practically free from vitamins is believed to be 
Vitamins the cause of such disorders as beri-beri, scurvy, etc., called 

nutritional disorders or deficiency diseases. Vitamins are 
water soluble, and are more or less destroyed when heated. This means 
that vitamins are often lost during the process of cooking, and that foods 



must be eaten raw in order to get the greatest benefit of the vitamins. 
Of course, certain foods cannot be eaten raw on account of the indi- 
gestibility of some of their components. Vitamins are removed from 
certain foods by special treatment, such as the polishing of rice, which 
removes practically all of the vitamins. 

"Fat Soluble A" — This is the name given to growth essentials 
found associated with fats or the fatty part of a food. In their physiolog- 
cal effect they resemble vitamins, but as the name indicates they are not 
soluble in water, only soluble in fats. 

Mineral Matter — This could properly be classed as a growth 
essential. Experiments have shown that a diet free from mineral matter 
soon causes serious nutritional disturbances. 

Amino Acids — Proteins are complex chemical compounds consist- 
ing mainly of chemically united amino acids; most protein molecules 
contain probably eighteen or more of these acids. The proteins of the 
human body are formed from the amino acids obtained by the digestion 
of food proteins. But a food protein in order to he suitable for building 
body proteins, must contain certain amino acids. If these are not present 
in the food, then the proteins of the latter are not "complete" and are 
inadequate for building up body proteins. 

Prices 

The commercial value of foods is intimately related to diets and 
nutrition. Frequently a change or a fad in diets causes a change in 
price. But much more frequently the reverse is true; a change in prices 
produces radical changes in diets. When potatoes were one dollar and 
twenty cents a peck, people ate less of them, and the steady rise in 
meat prices is gradually lessening meat consumption. The present price 
of flour and bread is turning people's attention toward corn products. 
It will not be necessary to discuss the reasons for high prices; nearly 
everybody has a theory about them. The writer believes that high prices 
in this country are due principally to the increasing amount of gold and 
use of credits. Of course, just now the war is an important factor; but 
prices were steadily rising even before the war.* 

Chemical Composition and Fuel Value 

To many people the value of a food depends upon its chemical 
composition. A food with a high percentage of fats, carbohydrates or 

*See Irving Fisher, Elementary Principles of Economics, N. Y., 1913. 

7 



proteins, or all of these, is a rich or valuable food. But it is evident from 
what has been said that more than composition must be considered. The 
composition of food is, however, important and a diet in order to be 
adequate should supply from three thousand to thirty-five hundred 
calories a day to a man doing ordinary work. One of the simplest and 
at the same time safest rules is to 'provide a mixed diet which will give 
from 3,000 to 3,500 calories daily ; the proteins, vitamins and food es- 
entials will take care of themselves if proper emphasis has been put 
on mixed diet. 

Explanation of terms used 

Calorie — This term is used as the unit of heat measurement. It is 
the name given to that amount of heat which will raise the temperature 
of one kilogram (1000 grants) of water one degree centigrade. A calorie 
will raise the temperature of nearly four pounds (3.968) of water one 
degree Fahrenheit. 

When a combustible substance is burned a certain definite amount 
of heat or energy is liberated. As the chemist and the physicist say, the 
reaction is exothermic. The heat liberated is called heat of combustion 
and its amount, measured in calories, is called the calorific value of the 
substance. 

Fuel Value — Calorific Value — These terms are used with refer- 
ence to the amount of heat produced when a substance is burned. 

Food Value — In a chemical sense food is burned in the body, and 
the effect or energy produced is often called food value. The fuel value 
of a food is the theoretical amount of heat that may be produced. But 
since foods are not completely burned in the body, the heat or energy 
liberated is less than called for by theory. The correct expression for 
the energy produced in the body is the physiological fuel value. 

Rich or concentrated food — One that has a high fuel value. 

Amino acid — An organic acid which contains one or more NH2 
groups; it contains nitrogen combined with hydrogen. Most of the 
other organic acids do not contain nitrogen. 

A complete protein is one which has in its chemical make-up the 
amino acid or acids necessary for the formation of new protein. 

Complete food — One which contains at least appreciable amounts 
of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals and growth essentials. Such 
a food is always physiologically complete, if a sufficient number of calo- 
ries are provided. 



Relish — Something eaten for its flavor, without reference to food 
value. Rehshes seldom have an appreciable food value and are eaten 
alone or mixed with other foods. 



Explanation of the Charts 

The best method of showing the composition of foods and of dietary 
values is by means of colored charts. By far the most elaborate and 
accurate charts of the kind are those prepared by Professor C. F. Lang- 
worthy of the United States Department of Agriculture, and published 
by the Department. The percentages of composition used are based 
largely upon data given in Bulletin 28 of the Department of Agriculture, 
"The Composition of American Food Materials," compiled by Atwater 
and Woods. 

By permission of the Department of Agriculture, the Langworthy 
charts have been used as a basis for the following reproductions. Besides 
the reduction in size, the following changes should be noted: In the 
originals water is represented by a green color, while in the following 
charts the part intended to show the proportion of water has been left 
uncolored. The ash is shown by fine dots (stipple) instead of a dark 
gray in the originals. Representative examples of different classes of 
foods are shown, first as to composition and second as to food values. 
The composition is indicated by percentage figures of proteins, carbo- 
hydrates, fat, water and ash or mineral matter. These percentages are 
given to the first decimal place only, and represent averages of a great 
many analyses of the edible portions of American food material. In 
these charts the composition is visualized by using different colors for 
different components. The amounts of colors are approximately in the 
proportion indicated by the percentages. The color key appears at 
the top of each chart. 

Proteins are shown in red. The percentages shown are obtained 
by determining the percentage of nitrogen by chemical 
Proteins analysis and multiplying this by 6.25, giving the percentage 
of protein. 

Fats are shown in yellow. The term "fat" in food analysis usually 
refers to the substances that can be extracted by means of ether and are 



sometimes called "crude fat." Natural fats are always mixtures of a 

number of compounds, each of which is chemically classed 
Fats as a fat. Chemically, a fat is nearly always a compound 

formed by the union of glycerine and a fatty acid. Foods, 
therefore, contain not only different amounts but also different kinds 
of fats. 

Carbohydrates are shown by a blue color. In the edible portions 
of foods, carbohydrates consist principally of starches and sugars; but in 
analytical data the term "carbohydrates" includes also cellulose, gums, 

and woody fiber. The cellulose and woody fiber are usually 
Carbo- present only in small amounts and are not digestible; they 

hydrates are also known by the term "crude fiber." Some analy- 

sists define carbohydrates as "nitrogen-free extract plus 
crude fiber." 

Ash, also called mineral matter, is shown in the finely dotted part 
and consists mainly of salts (chlorides, phosphates, sulphates) of potas- 
sium, sodium, calcium, magnesium and a few other ele- 
Ash ments. Analytically, the amount of ash is determined by 

burning away the combustible part of a food and weighing 
the incombustible residue. 

The portion of the pictures intended to represent the water in the 
foods is left uncolored. In the analysis of food, water is determined 

by heating in a drying oven at a temperature somewhat 
Water above 100 degrees C. to constant weight. The loss is 

calculated as water. 
In addition to the chemical composition, the charts show the food 
value of each food by a black rectangle and a statement in figures. The 
black square in the key represents one thousand large calories. The 

black rectangle under each food gives an approximate idea 
Food of the number of calories per pound. In the charts the 

Value term "fuel value" is used. This is the term usually used 

to express food value, although the two are not synony- 
mous. A food is looked upon as a fuel, — a body fuel, — and if a food is 
nearly all digested, the term "fuel value" is sufficiently accurate. 

It should be noted that the components of a food are mentioned 
under five headings: proteins, fats, carbohydrates, ash, and water. It 
must not be inferred that foods contain nothing else. Many foods con- 
tain small amounts of substances that are chemically and physiologically 

10 



different from any of the above mentioned five classes. Included under 
the term "proteins" in meat there are certain water soluble substances 
simpler in composition than proteins and known as extractives. 
Associated with some fats there are non-fatty substances without which 
the fats are physiologically or nutritionally incomplete. Without these 
growth is incomplete. They are sometimes called "growth determi- 
nants." In this bulletin the term "growth essentials" is used. 

A most important factor in a physiologically satisfactory food is its 
flavor and odor. However, the substances producing these qualities 
are present in very minute quantities and do not appear in the per- 
centages. 

Vitamins, also present in many foods, and without which a diet 
would be incomplete, are not shown in food charts or tables of compo- 
sition. Their chemical nature is as yet only partially 
Vitamins known, and methods for their quantitative determination 
have not been discovered; it is fairly certain, however, 
that the percentage is quite small. 



11 



Milk and MUk Products 

Whole Milk — The most noticeable feature of milk is its large amount 
of water and its low fuel value. Alone it would not be sufficient to 
sustain a man at work; it would require too great a bulk to supply the 
necessary energy or calories. Milk is often called a complete or perfect 
food. This is true with reference to the young since it contains all the 
food components necessary for maintaining growth and supplying energy. 

Milk protein is complete in that it contains the amino acids neces- 
sary for tissue formation, and that it is easily digested. 

Milk fat contains what has been designated as "fat soluble A," an 
unidentified substance or substances, insoluble in water but soluble in 
fat — and essential for growth. This "fat soluble A" is also found in 
some other foods. 

The principal carbohydrate in milk is lactose, a disaccharid which 
on hydrolysis, the first step in digestion, breaks down into two mono- 
saccharids, i. e., dextrose and galactose. The galactose is an important 
factor in the development of brain and nerve tissue, and no other sugar 
can be effectively substituted for it. 

The ash, or mineral matter, of milk contains the inorganic food 
essentials particularly well suited for the development of body tissues. 

Vitamins, like the unindentified "fat soluble A" substance mentioned 
under milk fat, are also growth essentials. Milk is an important source 
of vitamins. 

Skim milk differs from whole milk in its lower percentage of fat, 
and a correspondingly higher percentage of all the other components, 
and a lower fuel value. Its proteins, carbohydrates, mineral matter 
and vitamins make it valuable as a food, although this is frequently 
not appreciated or understood. 

Buttermilk closely resembles skim milk. Some of the lactose has 
undergone lactic fermentation and lactic acid bacilli and lactic acid are 
present. On account of these latter, buttermilk is believed to have a 
special medicinal food value. 

Cream, as a food, resembles whole milk, except that on account of 
its high percentage of fat it has a fuel value nearly three times as large. 



12 



COMPOSITION OF FOOD MATERIALS. 



Protein 



] C 



J [ 



Fat Carbohydrates Ash Water 



Fuel Value 
1000 Calories 



WHOLE MILK 



SKIM MILK 



FatAO 
Ash:0.7 




Water: 87.0 

Protein: 3.3 Fat:0.3. 

Ash: 0.7 




Water:90.5 



Protein: 3.'^ 



Carbohydrates: 5.0 Carbohydrates: 5.1 

D D 

FotL V/ALUE-.315 CALORIES PER POUND fuEL VALUE ;1 6 5 CALORIES PER POUND 



BUTTERMILK 



CREAM 



Fat:0.5- 
Ash:0.7' 



-Water:91.0 



[ Prit ill 3 Fat-.1 8.54 




^-Water:74.0 
Protein: £.5 



□ 



Carbohyclrates:4.8 Ash:0.5 Carbohydrates: 4-.5 



Fuel Value:160 calories per pound Fuel value:881 calories per pound 

Chart 1 — Milk and Milk Products 



Eggs and Cheese 

Eggs, in spite of their high percentage of water, are a rich 
food, i. e., they have a high fuel value due to the fat contained in the 
yolks. Their protein content is about eight-tenths as much as that 
found in meat. The fat of eggs contains the growth essential "fat 
soluble A" mentioned under milk. Eggs contain desirable mineral matter. 

Cream Cheese is made from whole milk. The name "cream 
cheese" is somewhat misleading, since cheese is never made from cream 
alone. On account of a high fat content, cheese has a considerable food 
value and is a rich food. The proteins of cheese contain the animo 
acids essential for growth, while the fat contains the "fat soluble A" 
substance. Both proteins and fats are, therefore, "complete" hke those 
in milk. 

Cottage Cheese is made from skim milk, but since it contains less 
water than the latter its fuel value is correspondingly higher. 



14 



COMPOSITION OF FOOD MATERIALS. 

■■ I I I '\ r^^"^ I I ■§ Fuel Value 

Protein Fat Cot-boh^'drates Ash Water ^^ 1000 Calories 

WHOLE EGG 



Water:73.7 




ProtGin£l4.8 
Pat:10.5 

Ash: 1.0 
Fuel value of 



WHOLE EGG 



695 CALORIES 
PER POUND 



Water 

EGG 

WHITE AND YOLK 



Water: ^9.5 
Protein: 16.1 
Fat:33.3 
Ash: 1.1 

Fuel value of yolk: 



1650. CALORIES 

PER POUND 




^V, 



Water:86.2. 

Protein: 13.0 
Fat:O.Z 



Ash: 0.6 
Fuel value of white 



c 



2.45 GAL0RIE3 
PER POUND 



CREAM CHEESE 

Water:34.2- 

Protein: 25.9 Water:72.0 



COTTAGE CHEESE 




Carbo- 



Fuel value 



Cdrbo- 
hydrates 




Protein: 20.9 



Fat: 1.0 
Ash: 1.8 



1885 calories per POUND 495 calories per POUND 

Chart 2 — Eggs and Cheese 



Meat 

Beef Steak, as represented on the chart, is perhaps the most com- 
mon form of meat used in this country. The fact that it contains nearly 
sixty-two per cent of water must be a surprise to most people. One is 
accustomed to think of meat as a protein food, but the protein per- 
centage is only 18.6. Many foods contain as much, or more, protein. 
But the great value of meat proteins lies in the fact that they are especi- 
ally palatable and easily digested. Associated with these proteins there 
are "extractives," or flavoring substances, which also add greatly to 
the palatability of meats. On account of these extractives, meats are used 
for flavoring other foods. Meats contain some "complete proteins" and 
"fat soluble A," but not as much as eggs or milk products. The fuel 
value of beef-steak is a little less than that of bread. 

The other meats shown on the chart have a higher fuel value because 
the percentage of water in them is less, especially in smoked ham. 

Physiologically, or nutritionally, no appreciable difference is known 
to exist among the various kinds of meat. The difference in flavor, 
however, is an important factor, because, everything else being equal, 
the more palatable a food is, the more digestible it will be. The popular 
belief of a considerable difference between light and dark meats seems 
to have no foundation in fact. 



16 



COMPOSITION OF FOOD MATERIALS. 



Protein Fat Carbohydrates 

LAMB CHOP 

EDIBLE PORTION 



er:53.1 



Ash 



Water 



Fuel Value 
1000 Calories 




PORK CHOP 

EDIBLE PORTION 



Water:5£.0 /0 



Ash: 10 
Fuel value 



|475 CALORIES 
PER POUNn 



Fat: 28.3 



SMOKED HAIVI 

EOlBLE PORTION 



Fat:30.1 





Ash:1.0 

Fuel value 



1535 CALORIES 
PER POUND 



BEEF STEAK 

EDIBLE PORTION 



Ash-.4.8 



DRIED BEEF 

EDIBLE PORTION 

Protein:30.0 



Fat;18.5 



Protein: 18.6 
Ash:1.0 




1090 CALORIES 
PER POUND 



Fuel 

VALUE". 



Ash:9.1 



810cAL0RIES 
PER POUND 



Chart 3 — Meat 



Fish and Oysters 

Fish belongs to the meat foods. Chemically and physiologically, 
fish is practically meat. The percentage of water is higher than in any 
other protein or meat food; the protein percentage is about the same as 
that in meat. Fish is classified as lean and fat. Whitefish and cod are 
examples of the lean class, while mackerel and salmon represent a fat 
fish. The fuel value of a lean fish is about one-fourth as great as meat, 
while a fat fish has a value of about one-half that of meat. Fish con- 
tains less extractives than meat and is about as digestible as the latter. 
Fat fish and fish products, such as salted, smoked and pickeled, are 
more difficult to digest than when fresh. 

Oysters contain about the same percentage of water as milk, but 
only about one-third as much fat. On this account oysters are a very 
dilute food, even more so than milk. Their food value is quite low, and 
they are eaten more as a relish than as a food. They are one of the 
few animal foods containing a carbohydrate, namely, glycogen, some- 
times called animal starch or muscle sugar. Oysters are easily digested, 
and almost universally used. Their popularity is no doubt due to the 
fact that they can be eaten raw, or prepared in so many different ways. 
Enormous quantities are used and the natural supply is supplemented 
by "oyster farming." Oysters are usually three years old before they are 
marketed. They are grown in salt water, and before marketing they are 
usually "floated," or fattened, in fresh water. During this process they 
absorb considerable water but lose some of their original flavor. If the 
floating has been done in contaminated water, oysters, especially if eaten 
raw, may be the means of transmitting typhoid fever. 



18 



COMPOSITION OF FOOD MATERIALS. 



Fuel Value 
.Water:82.6 I I 




nzD ma 

Corbohydrates Ash 



Water 



Fuel Value 
1000 Calories 

SALT COD 



Fuel value 

U Water: 53.5 



300cALORIES PER POUND 4-OOcALORlES PER POUND 

• 15.8 Protein: 2.1.5 

Fat:.3- 
OYSTER Ash:2^.7- 



. i^ Water:66.9^ 
Carbohyclretes:3./^ 





MACKEREL 

^\ Fat Fish 

Protein: 6. 2 
Fat:l.Z 

,sh: e.o 



SMOKED HERRING 

Fuel value 

c 

3ter:3^.6 230 calories per pound Watet:73.4- 
.Protein;36A Protein 18.3 



Fat:15.8 



Ash:13.2 




Fuel value Fue l val ue 

■ n 

1 305 CALORIES PER POUND 620 CALORIES PER POUND 




Chart 4 — Fish and Oysters 



Fat Foods 

Butter is the most important fat food on this chart. It is a milk 
product and, like milk, contains "fat soluble A," of course in a much 
larger amount. The amount of fat in butter should not be less than 
823/^ per cent. The percentage of water should not exceed sixteen per 
cent. Butter fat is one of the most palatable and most easily and 
completely digestible fats; it contains the growth essentials and a diet 
should always include milk or some milk product. Since butter sub- 
stitutes hardly ever contain growth essentials, they are substitutes only 
in that they have approximately the same fuel value. Butter is a rich 
food, its fuel value being three times that of meat, or of bread, and nearly 
five times that of eggs. The ash or mineral matter in butter consists 
largely of added salt. 

Olive Oil is all fat and has a higher fuel value than any other food 
except lard which furnishes the same number of calories. It is about as 
digestible as butter fat, but does not contain the growth essentials found 
in the latter. 

Lard is the fat obtained from the hog and differs from olive oil 
mainly in flavor, otherwise these two fat foods are quite similar. Contrary 
to popular belief, lard is nearly as digestible as butter, and the difference 
is probably not noticeable to the ordinary digestive tract. It lacks the 
growth essentials of butter. 

Bacon, the fat food obtained from the hog, is usually classed as a 
meat. It contains about one-half as much protein but nearly four 
times as much fat as beef-steak. This high percentage of fat gives to 
bacon a fuel value of nearly three times that of beef-steak. 

Beef suet represents internal fat tissues of beef cattle. When 
heated the fat is melted out and is then called tallow. Like the other 
fat foods, its fuel value is high, but it is not so easily digested as butter 
fat, nor does it contain the growth essentials of the latter. 



20 



COMPOSITION OF FOOD MATERIALS* 



I I 



] nzj 



[ZZJ 



Fuel Value 
lOOOUIones 



Protein Fflt Carbohydrates Ash Water 

VEGETABLE OILS.AS OLIVE.PEANUTAND COTTONSEED BACON 

C^ Protem..9A Fat:67.A- 



Waier:l8.8 



Fat:100.0 



BEEF SUET 




Fuel value 



^080 CALORIES PER POUND 




3090 CALORIES PER POUND 

Water:l3.2 
Protein: ^.7 



Ash:0.3 



BUTTER i^Hi^ 

3425 CALORIES PER POUND 

Fat>.83.a^ ^Water:13.0 

Fdt.100.0 



Protein: 1.0 



LARD 




AshTB.O 



Fuel value 



Fuel value 



3^05 CALORIES PER POUND ^^80 CALORIES per POUND 

Chart 5 — Fat Foods 



Cereal Grains 

Wheat is the most important food grain in this as well as in many 
other countries. It is usually classed as a carbohydrate food, but it also 
contains considerable protein, about two-thirds as much as found in 
meat. Whole wheat contains nutritionally valuable mineral matter as 
well as vitamins, and whole wheat preparations are excellent foods. 
The proteins of wheat are not as complete physiologically as those of 
meat, nor do they have the stimulating flavor of the latter. Measured 
in calories, wheat has nearly the same nutritional value as cheese, about 
one and one-half times that of meat and nearly five times that of milk. 

Corn is the next most important food grain. It differs from wheat 
principally in its greater fat and lesser protein content and a slightly 
higher food value. Cornmeal and corn flour will no doubt be the im- 
portant wheat substitutes of the future. Corn products are especially 
deficient in the amino acids necessary for tissue development. 

Rice is sometimes called the grain that feeds one-third of the world. 
It contains about one-third less protein, but somewhat more starch than 
wheat. It has a good flavor, is readily digested, and when "unpolished" 
contains growth essentials (vitamins). Polished rice should not be used 
as a food unless in a mixed diet. 

Oats contain more fat and mineral matter than the other grains. 
Its nutritive value is about the same as wheat. There is no special 
reason why it should not be eaten in summer as well as in winter. The 
first cereal breakfast food was made from oats. Wheat, corn, rye and 
rice are now also used extensively for that purpose. 

Rye is the food staple of Russia and Germany. In the United 
States rye is almost neglected as a food. Its composition is almost 
identical with wheat, but on account of its dark color, and lack of gluten, 
a rye loaf does not appear as palatable as wheat bread. 

Buckwheat is not a cereal botanically, but is usually classed with 
the cereal foods. Comparatively small quantities of buckwheat are 
used, mostly in the form of flour which is dark and used for pancakes. 

Whole-Wheat Bread is incorrectly named, since it is very rarely 
made from whole wheat flour. What is ordinarily called whole wheat 
flour does not contain all the original wheat kernel, but is partly refined 
by bolting. Bread made from such flour has a slightly lower food value, 
but contains more protein and mineral matter than ordinary white 
bread. It belongs to a class of foods which are not over-refined. Ordi- 
nary white flour is an over-refined food, and alone would not be a com- 
plete food. 22 



COMPOSITION OF FOOD MATERIALS- 

ga EZZI [ZZ3 in 



Protein Fat Carbohydrates Ash 

CORN 



L_J 
Water 



Fuel Value 
1000 Calories 



WHEAT 



Fat. 4.3 




Water:10.8 
Protein-. 10.0 



Water: 10.6 
Protein; ie.Z- 



Carbohydrates: 73.4 Carbohydrates: 73.7 




Fat.1.7 



Fuel Value FuelValue 

mH BUCKWHEAT ^///^ 

1685 CAL0RIE5 Protein:lO.O^^^Water:12.6 1625 calories 

PER POUND Carbo;^— — tyf'^t-.E.Z per pound 

hydrates 73.Z^'==^Ash:Z.0 

F uel valu e 

OAT H^l RICE 



Ae-Wdter-.H.O 1695 cALomEb Water: 12.0 



Pat. S.O-JSh-Protein: 1 1.8 

Fat:1.5- 



PER POUND 



Protein: 8.0 



.»apbo- 
J ^ 

Fuel value 



RYE 




^Fat:2.0 



Carb_ 
hydrates: 



:Water:10.5 

Pmfein:12.^ p,EL value 



.J--Ash:1.0 



Carbo- . , 

hydrates: 73.9\J^Ash: 1.9 

1670 CALORIES Fuel • Value 1^20 calories 

PER pound ^^^ ^^^ POUNI) 



1620 CALORIES 
PER POUND 

Chart 6 — Cereal Grains 



Bread and Other Cereal Foods 

Bread — By this term, as ordinarily used, is meant wheat bread 
made from the so-called "patent" or "baker's" flour. These flours do 
not represent the entire wheat kernel ; much that is nutritionally valuable 
has been removed with the bran and by bolting. Bread contains more 
water than most people suspect and the percentage of protein is one-half 
that of meat. Its nutritive value is four times that of milk, nearly twice 
that of eggs and a little more than that of meat. It is usually considered 
a carbohydrate food, and is cheap. 

Toasted bread differs from ordinary bread in a lower percentage 
of water and a correspondingly higher percentage of the other components 
and fuel value. 

Corn bread, as shown in the chart, is made from refined cornmeal, 
i. e., ground whole corn from which the outer coating and most of the 
germ with its protein and fat have been removed. Its food value is 
about the same as bread. 

Oatmeal breakfast food has a low food value if cooked and con- 
tains 843^ per cent, of water. 

Macaroni when cooked is made from wheat flour containing a high 
percentage of protein. Like all other cooked cereal foods, it has a high 
percentage of water and a low food value. 



24 



COMPOSITION OF FOOD MATERIALS, 



CZ] 



E~II 



Protein Fat Carboh)fdrQtes Ash 

WHITE BREAD 

Water: 35.3 Water:38.4 

Fat: 1.3 \ —^3^ Protein: 9.2 Protem:9.7 



Fuel Value 

Water ^^ 1000 Calories 

WHOLE WHEAT BREAD 




Ashl.l 



Carbo- Carbo 

h>drates:53.4 hydf=dtG5;49,7 



OAT 
BREAKFAST FOOD 




F^t.0.9 



Ash 1.3 



CALORIES \A/-.+pKH 84 S 

PER POUND vyater: o^ J 
PeoteIh:28 



TOASTED BREAD AsTiToJ 




Fuel value 



11 10 CALORIES 
PER POUND 



Fat: 0.5 
Carbohydrates: 11.5 




;l I I <COUCAL0RIES 
VALUE Jj I PER POUND 



FuEl 



Wdter:24.0 
Protein: 11.5 



Carbo- 
hydrates: 61.2 




Carbo; 
hydrates:46.3 



Fu^^uE MACARONI ^"^ '^'"' 

Fat:1.5 Protein; 3.0 Jl/Vater: 78.4 IH 

, ^1 N i ^^ ^^"^ ^ 1175c 



1380 CALORIES 
PER POUND 

Ash: 1.3 



ALORIES 
PER POUND 



Fuel ■ |400c\lorie5 



Carbohydrates: 15.8 Value: HI per pound 

Chart 7 — Bread and Other Cereal Foods 



Sugar and Similar Foods 

Sugar — Cane and beet sugar are chemically and physiologically- 
identical. Some people claim they can tell the difference; chemists 
cannot. Sugar is a refined food and therefore lacks growth essentials. 
It is considered a rich food, its fuel value being one and one-half times 
that of bread. Sugar is all carbohydrate. 

Molasses is the by-product of sugar making. It is a carbohydrate 
food and contains a mixture of cane and invert sugars. It also contains 
mineral matter and other substances originally present in the cane juice 
from which it was made. 

Candy, as shown, is the stick or hard variety and represents • the 
purest kind. It is a rich food, but not much used in the stick form. 
There are, however, many other forms of candy and enormous quantities 
are manufactured and eaten. The art of candy making, together with 
our national taste for all kinds of sweetmeats, is highly developed. The 
fuel value of most candies is high, depending on what and how much is 
mixed with the sugar used in making them. 

Maple sugar is chemically identical with cane sugar, but as found 
in the market contains water, mineral matter and flavoring substances. 
Maple sugar and syrup owe their popularity and palatability to these 
flavoring substances obtained from the maple tree. 

Honey is usually erroneously defined as the nectar secreted by 
flowers and gathered by bees. The bee does more than to gather it. 
By means of its long tongue the nectar is sucked out of the flowers and 
swallowed into the honey sack of the bee. Here the nectar, which 
consists of about thirty per cent, of sugar and about seventy per cent, 
of water, undiergoes chemical changes not well understood. The sugar 
is changed into invert sugar, and small quantities of gums and volatile 
substances, some of them originally present in the nectar and others 
developed by the bee, impart to honey its flavor. The carbohydrates 
of honey are mainly a mixture of dextrose and levulose — a natural 
invert sugar. 



26 



COMPOSITION OF FOOD MATERIALS. 



Protem 



Fat Carbohydrotei Ash 



Water 



Fuel Value 
1000 Calories 



SUGAR 

ORANUIATEO 



MOLASSES 



J ( Water: 25.1 



Carbohydrates: 100.0 



Fuel Value 



1810 CALORIES 
PER POUND 



CdrbohydrateS'-69.8 



STICK CANDY 

Carbohydrates: 96.5 



Fuel Vai 



Ash.3.2 



A 



^ - ^ J" 



/^ y // 



1300 CALORIE^ 
PER POUNO 



WalenS.O. ^ Ash-.0.5 

ruEL Value 



MAPLE SUGAR 



174-5 CALORIES 
PER POUND 



HONEY 




.— Water:16.3 



Carbo- 



Water:ia2 
Protein: 0.^ 



Carbo 
hyd rates : 8 2.8 hyd rates : 




UEL VALUE 



Fuel value 



Ash:a2 



1500 CALORIES PER POUNO 1475calORIES PER POUND 

Chart 8 — Sugar and Similar Foods 



Vegetables 

Potatoes — Most noticeable about potatoes is their high percentage 
of water and low food value. They are not a rich food and for that 
reason can be, and usually are, eaten in comparatively large quantities. 
They contain valuable mineral matter and are usually classed as a 
carbohydrate food. A diet which consists largely of potatoes is one 
sided, and should be supplemented with protein and fat foods. Potatoes 
can be grown almost anywhere and have an agreeable taste when pre- 
pared in any one of dozens of ways, which accounts for their popularity 
as a food. 

Onions, although they have quite an appreciable food value, are 
eaten usually as a relish and used for flavoring. Because of their odor 
and flavor they are believed by many people to possess medicinal prop- 
erties. Hence the saying, "An onion a day will keep the doctor away." 
Chemists and dietitians have been unable so far to discover in onions 
any therapeutic value other than that of vegetables in general as part 
of a well balanced diet. Vegetables usually supply valuable mineral 
matter and vitamins. 

Parsnips contain nearly as much starch as potatoes, but on account 
of their flavor they are not as popular as the latter. Like many other 
vegetables, parsnips contain valuable mineral matter, especially potas- 
sium and phosphates. 

Celery is eaten as a relish, not as a food. It is often stated that 
celery is a brain food, but why it should be called such nobody seems to 
know. Nothing has been discovered in celery which could be classed 
as a special brain food, and it probably possesses only the usual vege- 
table values. 



28 



COMPOSITION OF FOOD MATERIALS. 



Protein Fat Carbohydrates Ash 



Fuel Value 



c 



Z95 CALORIES 
PER POUND 




I 1 ^M Fuel Value 

Water hB 1000 Calories 

ONION 



Waten87_6 
Protein: 1.6 

Carbohydrates; 9.9 



Water. 83.0 




Protein: 1.6 
FattO.S 
CarBohydrdtes:i3.5 



Pat: 03 
Ash: 0.6 

Fuel Value 

□ 220 Calories 
pep pound 



POTATO 

Protein: 2. Z 




Carbohydrates 18.^ ^Water;78.3 

fuEL VALUE Protein: 1:1 

D 



375 CALORIES PER POUND 

Chart 9 — Vegetables 




Water:94.5 



Carbohydrates-.^.'^ 
Ash?L 



Fuel value 

D 

80 CALORIES 
PER POUMD 



Beans and Corn 

Beans — Of the foods shown in this chart, dry beans are the most 
important. Cooked and canned, either alone or with pork, tomatoes, 
etc., they are a popular American ready-to-serve food. Baked beans 
are an important item in our dietary. They are a "mixed" food, 
containing considerable carbohydrates, proteins and mineral matter. 
They contain more carbohydrates than bread and more than twice as 
much protein. Meat has less protein than beans, but the latter, although 
sometimes called the poor man's meat, should never be wholly substituted 
for meat. The proteins of beans are not dietetically complete and do not 
have the agreeable flavor of meat proteins. The difficulty in digesting 
beans, resulting in the gas formation which some people experience, is 
believed to be due to the peculiar character of the carbohydrates. The 
composition of peas is almost identical with beans and most of what 
has been said about the latter applies to peas also. Beans and peas 
are rich foods. 

Fresh beans, as shown in the chart, contain more water and less 
of the other components than the dry beans. Green string-beans are 
mostly water and resemble the so-called green vegetables. 

Green corn, or corn on the cob, although three-fourths water, has 
considerable food value on account of its starch content. It is both a 
relish and a food, and is classed with the so-called green vegetables. 
Green or succulent vegetables are valuable because they usually contain 
necessary mineral matter, vitamins, and supply the purest kind of water 
for our digestive processes. 



30 



COMPOSITION OF FOOD MATERIALS. 



mm r~ 


1 1 1 1 


^; 1 1 1 ^H ^uel Value 


Protein Fat Carbohydrates 


Ash Water JU lUUU Ulones 


SHELLED BEAN FRESH. 


NAVY BEAN. DRY 


^^./-;^^Water:58.9 


^^^Water:1^.5 


( r Carbohydrates; Z9.1 


ProteinT^gffxp,,,^ 


Protein 9.4-^^1^ Ash 2.0 


Cdrbohydrdtes:59.6\ \ , , ^ c 


Fuel Value 


Fuel Value 


n 







720 CALORIES PER POUND 1560 CALORIES PER POUND 

STRING BEAN, GREEN. 

Ash-.O.a 



Carbohydrates:?. 



Water: 89. e- 




Fat.0.3 

Protein: 2.3 



CALORIES PER POUND 



CORN, GREEN 

EOlBLe PORTIOK 



Water: 7 5.^ 



Protein: 3.1^ 




Carbohydrates -.19.7 

.Ash:0.7 



Fuel ■~|460 calorieT"^'^^^-^-^ 

VALUE H_J PP" POONO 
Chart 10 — Beans and Corn 



Fruit 

Apples are undoubtedly the most popular fruit in America. Their 
fuel value, which is due principally to carbohydrates, is quite low, and 
they are not a rich food. Like other fruits, although no medicinal 
substances have been found in apples, they are of special value in the 
diet on account of vitamins, mineral substances, and their agreeable 
flavor, which act as a stimulant to digestion. Their popularity is due 
principally to the pleasant flavor, or variety of flavors, in the different 
kinds of apples and also to the fact that they can be eaten raw or pre- 
pared in an almost endless number of ways and combinations. They 
can be grown almost anywhere in America. 

Bananas are one of the richest of the fresh foods, and consist 
principally of carbohydrates and water. Like apples, they have an 
agreeable flavor and ordinarily they are a cheap fruit. They would 
be more popular and cheaper if they could be more extensively raised 
in this country. Bananas, when eaten raw, no doubt supply growth 
essentials. 

Figs are a rich food, richer than bread or meat, and about the same 
as beans. Their food value is due mainly to carbohydrates (mostly 
sugar). They are supposed to possess special therapeutic qualities, but, 
so far, no medicinal components have been found in them. 

Strawberries have very little food value. They are eaten as a 
relish and play no important part in our dietary as a food. 



32 



COMPOSITION OF FOOD MATERIALS. 



CZZl 



Protein 



Fat Carbohydates Ash 

APPLE 

EPiBLt PORTION 



VJciief 



Fuel Value 
1000 Calories 



DRIED FIG 

EDIBLE PORTION 



Wdterr84.6 




Protein: OA Protein :4.3 

Fat:0,5 



Carbohydrates; H.Z Ash:0.3 



Fuel 
Value 



285 CALORIES 
PER POUND 



Carbohydrate 




Fuel 

VALUE 



1435 CALORIES 
PER POUND 



STRAWBERRY 

EDiBLt PORTION 



Water: 90.4 




Fuel 

VALUe 



□ 



175 CALORIES 
PER POUND 



BANANA 

EDIBLE PORTION 



Water: 75.3 



Protein: 1.0 
A L. Q £. Carbohydrates: 22.0 




Fuel 
VALUE 



44 5 CALORIES 
PER POUND 



Chart 11 — Fruit 



Fruit — Continued 

Grapes have a greater food value and are nearly as popular as 
apples. Their carbohydrate content and their flavor make them both 
a food and a relish. Unfortunately, they are much more perishable 
than apples. 

Raisins are dried grapes. They are concentrated food and in fuel 
value rank with dried figs and beans. 

Canned fruit contains considerable water and is, therefore, not 
a rich food. Its food value is due to fruit sugar and the sugar added 
in canning. It is consumed in enormous quantities, ordinarily as a 
relish. 

Fruit jelly on account of its high sugar content is a rich food. It 
is popularly considered a relish and when used as such only small amounts 
should be eaten. 

Grape-juice has no appreciable food value. It is used as a relish 
on account of its flavor. 



34 



COMPOSITION OF FOOD MATERIALS. 

Protein Fat Carbohydrates Ash Water j^B 

GRAPES RAISINS 



Fuel Value 
1000 Calories 



EDIBLE PORTIOK 



Water:/ 7A^ 




Protem^3 
Feitjie 
Ash:0. 



Carbo- 
hydrdtes:l9.Z 



EDIBLE PORTION 

Water:H.6 ^m h^f^ Prote>.2-6 

Carbo- 
hydrates 76.1 



Fuel value 

c 

435 CALORIES 

PER POUND 



GRAPE JUICE 

UNFERMENTED 



CANNED 
FRUIT 

Water:77. 2 



Water: 79.7 






Ash:3.4 



15 60 CALOPIES 
PER POUNn 

FRUIT 
JELLY 

Ash: 0.3 



Ash'TO.S 



Protein: 1.1 



F + n 1 ^"^^ CALORIES 

rat;U.i per pound 



Carbo- 



Carb^ 
hydrates: 7 8.3 



Fue^Mlue hydrates. ZU 



405 CALORIES 
PER POUND 



'^sh:0.7 
Fuel value 



1415 CALORIES 
PER POUND 



Chart 12 — Fruit (Continued) 



Nuts 

Peanuts — The composition and food value of peanuts are probably 
a surprise to most people. Peanuts are among the richest and cheapest 
of our foods, although generally not considered a food. They contain 
considerable more protein than does meat. They resemble cheese in 
their high fat and protein content, while their carbohydrate percentage is 
considerably higher. Of the vegetable proteins, those contained in 
peanuts are" among the most complete. 

Peanut butter, as shown in the chart, contains less water and 
more fat than peanuts and, therefore, possesses a higher food value. 
When peanut butter is made by simply grinding peanuts it has the same 
food value as the latter. 

Walnut kernels contain a considerable amount of the three com- 
ponents, especially fat. Their high food value is due to the presence 
of the latter. Like all other rich foods, walnuts should be eaten sparingly, 
otherwise they might cause digestive disturbances — which frequently 
lead people to believe that such foods are hard to digest. 

Chestnuts are a starchy food. 

Cocoanut, dried, sometimes called shredded cocoanut, is a rich 
food, mainly on account of its high fat content. 



Charts 14 and 15 are self-explanatory. 



36 



COMPOSITION OF FOOD MATERIALS. 

nu czn izzi ^ 



Water: 2>5 



Protein Fat Carbot^ydratei Asti Water 

WALNUT CHESTNUT 

Protein: 16.6 Protein. 10.7 



Fuel Value 
1000 Calories 




Carbo- 

rdtcs:l6,l 




Carbo 
hydrates; 74.2. 



Full value PEANUT Fuel Value 

^^^1 Water a^-i^y^^^Y' 



Ash:2.Z 




3180 CALORIES _,_-J5^-^4^Ash:£.0 18ZOCALOR.ES 

PER POUND Pr'HeinrT^.S Fat^8 6 ''^^ pound 

Fuel Value 



PEANUT BUTTER 

^^^Hn-Protein: 

Fat-.46.5 

Carbo- 
hydrates: 17. ] 



24 85 CALORIES 
PER POUND 



COCOANUT 

DESICCATED 

Water;3.5 



Ash:5.0- 




Carbo- 

h)/d rates: 31.5 



Fat: 57.4 



Fu 



EL VALUE 



Fuel Value 



2735 CALORIES PER POUND 3025 CALORIES PER POUND 

Chart 13 — Nuts 



FUNCTIONS AND USES OF FOOD. 

CONSTITUENTS OF FOOD. 



Water 



FOOD AS PUR- 
CHASED contains'! 



Protein 
Fats 

Carbohydrates 
Mineral Matter Or Ash 



edible: portion 

Flesh of meat.yolk [ Nutrients^ 
and white of eggs, 
wheat flour, etc. 
REFUSE 
Bones, entrails, 
shells, bran, etc. 

USE OF FOOD IN THE BODY. 

PROTEIN Builds and repairstissue 

Whitelalbumen) of eggs, 

curd (casein) of milk, 

lean meat,glutenofwheat,etc. 

All serve as fuel to 

V yield enerqy inthe forms 
FATS Are stored as fat f \, ^ V . 

of heat and muscular 
Fat of me at, butter; 

power 
olive oil. oils of corn 

and wheat, etc 
CARBOHYDRATES— -Are transformed into fat 

Sugar, starch, etc. 
MINERAL MATTER OR ASH— Share in formmq bone. 

Phosphates of lime, assists in digestion. etc. 

potash, soda, etc 

Food is that which, taken into the body, builds tissue or yields energy. 



Chart 14 



DIETARY STANDARDS. 

DIETARY STANDARD FOR MAN IN FULL VIGOR 
AT MODERATE MUSCULAR WORK. 



Condition considered 


Protein 


Energy 




Grams 


Calories 


Food as purchased 


115 


3,800 


Food eaten 


100 


3,500 


Food digested 


95 


3,200 



ESTIMATED AMOUNT OF MINERAL MATTER 
REQUIRED PER MAN PER DAY. 

Grams Grams 

Phosphoric acid (PjOs) 3to4 Calcium oxid 0.7 to 1.0 

Sulphuric acid (5O3 ) 2to3.5 Magnesium oxid 0.3 to 0.5 
Potassium oxid 2to3 Iron 0.006 to O.OIZ 



Sodium oxid 



4to6 Chlonn 6 to 8 



Chart 15 



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